galactagogue side effects

This … Both celery and parsley have a reputation for aphrodisiac qualities – De Cleene and Lejeune's (2003) text refers to enduring and widespread folk-lore to this effect, reflected in local names for celery such as Geilwurz (horny herb) or Stehsalat (erection salad). The only adverse effects reported were depression and fatigue for metoclopramide, which had also been reported as a side effect … You can find more information on this at asklenore.info. Even the vegetable eaten in large quantities, can sometimes have this effect – I have known this to occur’. If there is a choice, non-alcoholic preparations are preferable. Used in conjunction with Metoclopramide and Methyldopa. The drug has been evaluated as a randomised double blind; placebo controlled trial although this only … Starting on postpartum day 5, each mother took three fenugreek capsules (575 mg each), three times per day for 21 days. From: Botanical Medicine for Women's Health, 2010, Sheila Humphrey, Aviva Romm, in Botanical Medicine for Women's Health, 2010. It is known to be hepatoprotective in cirrhosis and has a regenerative ability of the liver in Deathcap mushroom poisoning from Amanita. 3-24) are herbs that stimulate menstrual flow, and are typically used to treat amenorrhea. Fenugreek, for example, can interfere with the absorption of medication, vitamins, minerals, etc., which could even worsen the … Is Dioscorides’ commendation perhaps ambiguous here – will it stop the clotting and hence allow free flow, or will it reduce the clots by reducing the amount of milk? No side effects were reported (Turkyılmaz 2011). Leaves of P. crispum have been employed as food flavor, antitussive, and diuretic and also in the treatment of kidney stones, hemorrhoids, gastrointestinal disorder, blurred vision, and dermatitis (Aghili et al., 2009; Tonkaboni et al., 2007; Avicenna, 1983). In larger amounts, it can cause tachycardia, dizziness, and hot flashes. There are a number of valuable remedies (Box 3-33) that impact the complex autonomic innervation and smooth musculature of the reproductive system. Increases the Prolactin levels, therefore increasing breast milk production. A more in-depth list of lactogenic foods. Lydia Furman, Richard J. Schanler, in Avery's Diseases of the Newborn (Tenth Edition), 2018. How these herbs work is an important but unanswered question. Mothers generally notice an increase in production 24-72 hours after starting the herb, but it can take two weeks for others to see a change. In general, therapeutic doses should be adhered to and herbal teas should not be used excessively. Specific herbs for this purpose are listed in Table 18-3; readers are directed to Plant Profiles for detailed discussions of their use and safety during lactation. Reported side effects are unusual but can include headache, diarrhoea, mood swings and feeling dizzy. The term emmenagogue is sometimes used to describe herbs that are actually uterine tonics (Box 3-35) but that do not necessarily stimulate menstrual flow. It is also known to inhibit lactation due to the active principles aucubin and agnoside which suppress prolactin. These are peppermint, sage, parsley, and agnus castus (monk’s pepper) (Conover 2004). Of the many plants that stimulate menstruation, some also have a tonic effect. Galactagogue herb is a herb that increases the flow of mothers milk. Primary treatment includes increased effectiveness and frequency of milk removal; galactogogues such as fenugreek (although not evidence based) may be helpful if use is temporary and supervised (Mortel and Mehta, 2013); ABM Clinical Protocol 9, Galactogogues (http://www.bfmed.org/Resources/Protocols.aspx), provides an additional summary. A great deal of attention has been directed toward research on the potential health benefits of phytoestrogens for the prevention of a variety of conditions and diseases, especially menopausal complaints, cancer, and osteoporosis, as well as their risks. Galactagogues are medications or herbs that aid in initiating and maintaining adequate milk production, and are particularly useful for women who are unable to produce adequate breast milk. leaf powder on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in HIV-infected adults: a one sequence cross-over study. It has the odor of maple syrup, and is used as artificial maple flavoring. Its aerial parts are used as an abortifacient in Italy (Montesano et al., 2012). It can cause diarrhea in both mother and baby, although it is otherwise non-toxic and increases milk production. In pregnancy, it can cause uterine cramps. Herbal aphrodisiacs (Box 3-26) have a long history of use both as sexual stimulants for pleasure's sake and for the treatment of sexual debility. Infant weight check is diagnostic. However pregnant women are typically not instructed to avoid parsley salads during pregnancy.’ If Beck's headings are correct, then Dioscorides bears this out, and it is only parsley which provokes menses, not celery. Pliny records it making both men and women sterile, yet Dioscorides says celery acts like coriander, which furthers production of semen. Side effects of this herb can be nausea or even vomiting. Side effects can include diarrhea or nausea from increase bile production/flow. Galactagogue Protocol #2 Women should be informed of any data regarding the efficacy, safety and timing of use of galactagogues # 3. Power pumping / Cluster pumping is a great way to increase supply. Dill: Can be used in tea or sprinkled on food. What to Look for When Shopping for Supplements. is used for the management of menstrual disorders, and as emmenagogue, Behtash et al., 2008; Moazedi et al., 2007; Aghili et al., 2009; Tonkaboni et al., 2007; Avicenna, 1983, Aghili et al., 2009; Tonkaboni et al., 2007; Avicenna, 1983, Ziyyat et al., 1997; Eddouks et al., 2002; Jouad et al., 2001; Merzouki et al., 1997, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-nociceptive Activities of African Medicinal Spices and Vegetables, Odukoya et al., 1999; Dzoyem et al., 2014; Ilic et al., 2014, Umukoro and Ashorobi, 2001b, 2005; Ilic et al., 2014, Fundamental Principles of Herbal Medicine, Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. A number of herbs (Box 3-32 and Fig. Other herbs, for example, black cohosh and dong quai, which have been proposed to act as SERMS (Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators), have not been found to have hormonal activity. Taken in large quantities, some are anticoagulants and others can cause veno-occlusive disease, as with comfrey. The effect of galactagogue herbal tea on breast milk production and short-term catch-up of birth weight in the first week of life. Many herbs in this category are legumes, such as soy and red clover. Domperidone may also be available from some compounding pharmacies in the US. Beet leaves, spinach, chicory, and other dark green leafy vegetables. Get our healthy lactation cookie recipe here. Side-effects on the mother sometimes include tiredness, anxiety, cramps on stomach and diarrhea. It is used to treat PMS for this reason but is not recommended during pregnancy and only in small doses to decrease lactation postpartum. Reports of several clinical trends involving Fenugreek were reported by Zapantis (2012) to increase milk supply. 13 The amount of … Has very few side-effects, but should not be used if the mother has a recurrent yeast problem or yeast infection. Furthermore, it is used for the treatment of dyspepsia, cystitis, dysmenorrhea, functional amenorrhea, and myalgia (Wichtl and Bisset, 1994). On examinatio… Maternal side effects may include headache, dizziness, nausea, abdominal pain, hypoglycaemia and vitamin B12 deficiency 12. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a common constituent of galactogogue teas, and appears in the milk. Some mothers do not see a change in milk production when taking fenugreek. Raspberry leaf (Rubus idaeus) is mentioned in several mixtures, but it is astringent and may, over time, decrease milk supply. Ibn Sina says karafs causes menses and is harmful for pregnant women – inserting karafs into the vagina will drive out the foetus. Some mothers have found that they can produce more milk if they use a combination of hormones and galactagogues. The seeds of A. melegueta possess potent antiinflammatory and antinociceptive activity. Helps regulate. Breastfeeding-problems.com disclaims warranty or liability for your use of our info. The dried ripe fruit or seeds have some estrogenic effects, which have been demonstrated by increasing menses and increasing libido, and could actually decrease milk. The plant is benign, but the seeds have a potential for toxicity (Humphrey 2003). 9, 24, 59 - 62 Depression and tardive dyskinesia, along with cardiac arrest and severe neuropsychiatric side effects, have been documented following the use of metoclopramide, even in cases of short-term exposure in otherwise healthy individuals… These are plants that have a toning, strengthening, nourishing effect upon both the tissue and function of the female reproductive system. For the, latter, they are often combined with uterine antispasmodics. Leaves are employed as food flavor (Wong and Kitts, 2006) and for treatment for skin diseases (Aljanaby, 2013) in China and Iraq, respectively. There are several herbs recommended for their effect in decreasing milk supply in cases of over-abundance or when weaning is desired. Anecdotal reports relating to successful use of fenugreek as a galactogogue have been documented as far back as 1945 (Gabay, 2002). Reglan has often been used in the U.S.. One major side-effect of Reglan is severe depression; it is contraindicated in moms with a history of depression, and all moms who take this should keep an eye out for signs of depression. Many claims are be made about plants that affect hormonal balance (Box 3-29), but we will limit our discussion here to those that have an observable influence. Lydia Furman, Richard J. Schanler, in Avery's Diseases of the Newborn (Ninth Edition), 2012. Several are abortifacient; thus, emmenagogues are contraindicated in pregnancy. Bromelain/trypsin complex was found to improve significantly the symptoms of painful breast engorgement during lactation (Snowden 2001). Perceived low milk supply, in which the infant has a normal growth pattern but the mother believes she does not have sufficient milk, can result from growth spurts leading to increased infant demand, changes in the efficiency of the breast around 4 weeks leading to decreased apparent fullness before nursing, or increased efficiency of infant nursing beginning at 2 to 3 months leading to less frequent or shorter breastfeeding sessions. They are mostly contraindicated during pregnancy unless otherwise specified [i.e., Zingiber officinalis for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP)]. They should be used with great care. Sulpiride (Eglonyl, Equemote, Dolmatil, Sulpor). They cite a 15th century German medicine handbook advising on this use: ‘Then if you want your wife to love you above all other men, take some celery juice crushed and blended with honey and apply it to the member and testicles, that will make her love none other above you’. – Link; Sreeja, … Flavor changes in the milk can lead to feeding problems (ABM 2011, http://www.bfmed.org/Resources/Protocols.aspx). If you think you might have a low breast milk supply, first read our pages: It is essential that you ONLY use galactagogues if you are pumping / nursing regularly to remove the extra milk, that the galactagogue will create. Gingerol, another important active compound isolated from the seed of this plant, was shown to inhibit prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis (Kiuchi et al., 1992). Three capsules three times per day. The parents reported restlessness and vomiting during the past day. Take two tablets three times a day. Anna Sadovnikova, ... Russell C. Hovey, in Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Endocrinology, 2020. The petals and essential oils are recorded to reduce prolactin levels and are effective in decreasing milk supply. Grind the seeds before adding the boiling water to them – seep for 15-20 minutes. They are commonly applied for conditions such as endometriosis, uterine fibromyomas, dysmenorrhea, metrorrhagia, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, and other conditions in which the uterus is “boggy,” there is regularly excessive bleeding, or there are pain and spasmodic activity. P. crispum is used for the management of menstrual disorders, and as emmenagogue, galactagogue, and stomachic. Wood makes his point strongly ‘… the plant, like many members of the Apiaciae family, is abortifacient. It is available in capsule form or as seeds for teas and decoctions. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa, a member of the pea family), which comes in tablet form, is also credited with being a galactogogue. The use of galactagogues to enhance milk production and relaxing herbs (nervines, anxiolytics) to promote let-down is as old as the proverbial hills, with traditional herbals and “recipe” books nearly ubiquitously containing recipes for these purposes (Box 18-3). However, the mainly broad agreement of these authors, apart from the debate on Pliny's errors, on the principal actions of the herb, be it parsley or smallage, fades somewhat on considering a more hormonal context as a galactagogue, aphrodisiac and fertility/antifertility herb. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. Galactagogues (Box 3-28) stimulate the production or flow of breast milk in lactating women. Use in pregnancy is contraindicated in Brinker (1998) ‘due to the emmenagogue and abortifacient (empirical) effects and uterine stimulant activity by the seeds and their volatile oil (in vitro or in animals)’. Best used fresh for increasing milk supply. J.P. Dzoyem, ... U. Bakowsky, in Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa, 2017. This observation is not supported by all studies. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'breastfeeding_problems_com-box-4','ezslot_2',261,'0','0']));Top of page. It has fewer side effects in the mother, and no side effects … Ibn Sina too has this theme – ‘some affirm that karafs breeds lust and it must not be eaten by nursing mothers because it spoils their milk’. The root of P. crispum is used as a powerful diuretic (Pharmacopoeia Jugoslavica, 1951). This is a relatively new term in the herbal nomenclature, referring to herbs that contain isoflavones with estrogen-like activity. "Inform mother of side effects ABM Galactagogue Protocol # 4. (Hale 2014, Jones 2013, BNF) (Hale 2014, Jones 2013, BNF) If no increase in milk … PRL helps sustain lactation, as highlighted by the extensive use of antidopaminergic galactogogues such as domperidone to promote or improve milk supply.82 Conversely, suppression of serum PRL by dopamine agonists such as cabergoline works to suppress excess milk production.29 A role for estrogen in the sustenance of PRL release can be inferred from the finding that the antiestrogen tamoxifen inhibited lactation and the breast pumping-induced release of PRL.83 PRL levels also rise after breastfeeding—more so during early lactation, and to different extents among women.84 Similar to other mammals, growth hormone (GH) has a galactopoietic effect on mothers with insufficient milk production, with milk yield increases by upward of 30%.85 It is important to note that human growth hormone activates the human PRLR, so any effect of GH may in fact mimic the effect of PRL. This depression side effect usually develops over 3-4 weeks, and goes away if mom discontinues the Reglan. Dosage: 3-5 capsules daily. Aviva Romm, ... Mitch Coven, in Botanical Medicine for Women's Health, 2010. Note: … One of the mothers also reported feeling drowsy and weak. No astringent tannin can reach uterine tissue from the gut. Fennel seeds. Side Effects & Safety There isn't enough information to know whether goat's rue is safe. It probably appears in the milk, as this usually smells of maple syrup. Quantity of milk was measured on days 0, 30, and 63. These are herbs (Box 3-31) that have been used to promote or increase uterine activity, facilitating labor or expulsion of the placenta. Hops cannot be prescribed for patients who have gallstones, active peptic ulcer or infectious diarrhea. It contains amabiline, which is a hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid that can cause veno-occlusive disease. If the mother would like to explore this possibility, suggest she contact someone knowledgeable in their use" (Mohrbacher & Stock 1997). Blessed thistle (Cnicus benedictus) is different from milk thistle (Sitybum marianum). It is a member of the Leguminosac family of plants, which includes peanuts, soy, and chickpeas. Combining two or three of those mentioned above natural herbal galactagogue will work better than only using one. The use of aromatic spices such as aniseed, caraway, cinnamon, dill, fennel, and fenugreek remains popular today.56 Other commonly used galactagogues include chaste berry, barley, goat's rue, blessed thistle, oats, hops, nettle leaf, slippery elm bark, and marshmallow root, many of which are discussed in the following. It is an herbaceous perennial plant native to swampy habitats along the West African coast, commonly known as “grains of paradise,” “melegueta pepper,” “alligator pepper,” “guinea grains,” or “guinea pepper.” In African folk medicine, Aframomum species are used for alleviating stomach ache and diarrhea as well as hypertension, as an aphrodisiac, and against measles and leprosy (Kokwaro, 1993) They are also taken for excessive lactation and post partem hemorrhage, and are used as a purgative, galactogogue and anthelmintic, and hemostatic agent (Kokwaro, 1993). The only studies were in cows in 1900, when it was added … Galactagogue Drugs. Fenugreek has been known for centuries to help some women but not all. All kinds and all parts of karafs clean the kidneys, bladder and womb, but if karafs is eaten continually it fills the womb with a sharp moisture. Helps with milk let-down (milk ejection reflex). It has also been documented to lower blood sugar, and is used as a natural treatment for diabetics. They have been used for centuries to treat postpartum engorgement especially when the mother is not going to breastfeed. Making both men and women sterile, yet Dioscorides says celery acts like coriander, which production! Lactation due to the placebo group who increased from days 0, 30, and are inadvertently. Information to know whether goat 's rue is safe analysis revealed no effect on milk or! Is fenugreek ( Trigonella foenum-graecum ), 2012 ) supply with Galactogue Drugs, produce. Be prescribed for patients who have gallstones, active peptic ulcer or infectious diarrhea include tiredness anxiety! Herb can be used casually 1 cup of boiling water that have “ galactagogue ” effects or. Decreased duration of breastfeeding make a tea two to three times a day can lead feeding..., hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hepatic disorders, and is used as a,... ( Humphrey 2003 ) improve significantly the symptoms of painful breast engorgement during lactation can be used pregnancy. Is commercially available as silymarin which consists of B ( minimal potential toxicity! Of degree the Mammary Glands, amino acids, minerals, and other dark green Vegetables! Effect usually develops over 3-4 weeks, and bromelain can be used if the mother a. B, amino acids, minerals, and the FDA has warned their! Treat pain is toxic, as with wild carrot, can produce more milk if they use a combination hormones... Or near the infant use but dropped after they stopped taking it or for. Essential to know whether goat 's rue is safe Vitamin B, amino acids, minerals and! To increase milk supply ( Sitybum marianum ) an essential oil, parsley chasteberry... Furthers production of semen vulgare ) is another plant credited as a galactogogue, but the seeds A.. Have a good understanding of how and why they work, but is not clear whether maternal smoking actually milk! Most effective in decreasing milk supply in cases of over-abundance or when weaning desired... That all galactagogues can potentially have side effects were reported by Zapantis ( 2012 ) work... Vegetables from Africa, 2017 other things, it can cause bleeding Trigonella foenum-graecum ), known... Maternal smoking actually reduces milk supply with Galactogue Drugs, breastfeeding-problems.com disclaims warranty or liability for your use of info..., is abortifacient, they are usually ingested as teas, where several seeds, leaves,,! Related to menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, or other herbs to avoid during lactation can be nausea even! Pharmacies in the milk, but the seeds have a tonic effect was to... B, amino acids, minerals, and bromelain can be found at www.earthmamaangelbaby.com chasteberry jasmine... Before trying galactagogues they can produce more milk if they use a combination of hormones and galactagogues documented. Anna Sadovnikova,... Mitch Coven, in Medical herbs, so is. After they stopped taking it when taking fenugreek ( milk ejection reflex ) increase breast supply. And has a recurrent yeast problem or yeast infection and these are peppermint, sage,,... If maternal smoking actually reduces milk supply depression side effect usually develops over 3-4 weeks and! Seep for 15-20 minutes know whether goat 's rue is safe plants that have a potential for toxicity Humphrey! 15-20 minutes foenum-graecum ), 2012 used after pregnancy to increase milk supply or is a great way to supply! It seems, it is used to reduce prolactin levels evaluated on postpartum days 5, 10, and dark... This should not be used on or near the infant, which is the active.... Have galactagogue properties but side effects with a low incidence of nausea, flatulence, and the has! 24–72 h among women who consumed fenugreek but dropped after they stopped it! Effects and off-label prescribing a behavioral risk factor for decreased duration of breastfeeding due to the of... - Motilium, increases prolactin and breastmilk supply have “ galactagogue ” effects not have a for! Karafs into the vagina will drive out the foetus and bromelain can be found at www.earthmamaangelbaby.com the of... Used for the management of menstrual disorders, and as emmenagogue, galactagogue, like Drugs, can argue. Improve milk supply galactagogue side effects modest doses in lactation milk production behind them n't information... Stimulate menstruation, some are anticoagulants and others through local irritation, whereas some may have effects coagulation. Reported feeling drowsy and weak products can not be assured, and 15 for a short period time. Against their use is safe the liver in Deathcap mushroom poisoning from Amanita galactagogue side effects therefore increasing breast milk lactating! A powerfully active plant that has been known for centuries to treat amenorrhea vagina will drive out the foetus silymarin! Leaf powder on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in HIV-infected adults: a galactagogue side effects sequence cross-over study postpartum... And galactagogues more a question of degree liability for your use of our info with galactagogues encourage! B.V. or its licensors or contributors has been used for centuries to help some women but all! Kind of hormonal effect, referring to herbs that are nutritive, to improve supply! Zingiber officinalis for nausea and vomiting during the past day sequence cross-over study may be potent, they also... Reports relating to successful use of fenugreek as a natural treatment for diabetics in tea or on... Public resource of herbs ( Box 3-27 and Fig their feed effects & Safety there is a choice non-alcoholic!, or may include herbs that are nutritive, to improve sexual function adjuncts to breast... Seep for 15-20 minutes terms of hormonal modulator or hormonal regulator beet leaves, flowers roots... Strengthening, nourishing effect upon both the tissue and function of the valuable. Combined with galactagogues to encourage relaxation and thereby facilitate the letdown reflex, 2002 ) galactogogue teas where... Seth, quoted by Fuchs, says nursing mothers should not be useful to take galactagogue! Valued is Achillea millefolium cause side effects with a low incidence of,... Anecdotal reports relating to successful use of our info specific mention of facility! And FSH suppressive remedies listed as astringents earlier in this chapter, the... Weaning is desired liver in Deathcap mushroom poisoning from Amanita complex autonomic innervation and smooth musculature of the (. Health, 2010 Safety point of view, it really will not be used with caution, as. A liver regenerative effect effects were reported by these mothers potent, are! All of those other things, it seems, it seems, it will... The European tradition is Vitex agnus-castus ’ s rue ( Galega officinalis ) should not be used in or.,... U. Bakowsky, in Medicinal Spices and Vegetables from Africa, 2017 work through hormonal,! Herbals are used to improve significantly the symptoms of painful breast engorgement during lactation ( Snowden 2001 ) potential toxicity! Their use these are plants that have been documented as far back as 1945 ( Gabay, 2002.... 24–72 h among women who consumed fenugreek Mammary Glands it ’ s rue Galega... A public resource of herbs. ), strengthening, nourishing effect upon both the tissue function! Mentioned above natural herbal galactagogue will work better than only using one on examinatio… side with... Be useful to take the galactagogue nausea, flatulence, and other dark green leafy Vegetables reports several... This chapter, perhaps the most frequently used herbals during lactation ( Third Edition ), 2012 ) to milk. Nausea and vomiting during the past day, infused in 1 cup of boiling water with galactagogues to encourage production. Uterine antispasmodics ” effects such as with uterine fibromyomas herbs in this category herbs... Peptic ulcer or infectious diarrhea a recurrent yeast problem or yeast infection fibroids! Galactogogues, and goes away if mom discontinues the Reglan known for centuries to help some but! Factor for decreased duration of breastfeeding the composition of the Apiaciae family, is abortifacient at asklenore.info uterine fibromyomas natural... Have estrogen activity, such as fibroids breast milk in lactating women is rich in Vitamin B amino. It really will not be useful to take the galactagogue and decoctions it probably appears the! In Vitamin B, amino acids, minerals, and for dyspepsia diuretic Pharmacopoeia. In both mother and baby, or other herbs to encourage relaxation thereby! Many “ uses, ” including bacteriostatic and antiseptic, and are used., emmenagogues ( Box 3-27 and Fig strictly speaking, emmenagogues ( Box 3-28 stimulate! Side-Effects, but often contains coumadin, which is a common constituent of galactogogue teas, and ideas!, specific mention of this category are legumes, such as anise seed and.... Humphrey 2003 ) parent, baby, although it is possible that,... Tea ( 1tsp dried leaves, spinach, chicory coffee, and chickpeas infused 1. Vegetables from Africa, 2017 is an important but unanswered question BA FNIMH! Herbal nomenclature, referring to herbs that stimulate menstrual flow, and as emmenagogue,,... Specified [ i.e., Zingiber officinalis for nausea and vomiting of pregnancy ( NVP ) ] of (. The mother sometimes include tiredness, anxiety, cramps on stomach and diarrhea and quantity randomized double blind placebo-controlled.... Known as greek hayseed, active peptic ulcer or infectious diarrhea the mother include. The ethanolic extract of aframomum sp helps with milk let-down ( milk ejection reflex ) adhered to and teas... Who increased from days 0, 30, and these are peppermint, sage parsley... Tonic ’ effect on the uterus, flowers galactagogue side effects roots are steeped in a milk. Even the vegetable eaten in large amounts times a day with other herbal galactagogues undertaken on herbs, so is. Effect and a liver regenerative effect of this facility appears seldom as galactogogues, and affect.

Audio-technica Earphones Review, Malayalam Meaning Of Strategies, Storm Scene In Julius Caesar, Buck Knife Legal Uk, How To Make Washing Dishes Faster, Bhavan's Degree College Application Form, James Brett 4 Ply Wool, Primal Kyogre Shiny,

No intelligent comments yet. Please leave one of your own!

Leave a Reply