, Thus, he presented himself as the fountainhead of the Empire, Roman life, and religion. The first crisis of the reign came in 182, when Lucilla engineered a conspiracy against her brother. Commodus (/ˈkɒmədəs/; 31 August 161 – 31 December 192) was Roman emperor jointly with his father Marcus Aurelius from 176 until his father's death in 180, and solely until 192. While co-Emperor, Commodus became the youngest consul up until that point in Roman history.  According to Herodian, spectators of Commodus thought it unbecoming of an emperor to take up arms in the amphitheater for sport when he could be campaigning against barbarians among other opponents of Rome. In the arena, Commodus' opponents always submitted to the emperor; as a result he never lost. Augustus (Imp. Names: 31 Augustus 161: Lucius Aurelius Commodus; 12 October 166: Lucius Aurelius Commodus Caesar; 172: Lucius Aurelius Commodus Caesar Germanicus; 175: Lucius Aurelius Commodus Caesar Germanicus Sarmaticus; June 177: Imperator Caesar Lucius Aurelius Commodus Augustus; 17 March 180: Marcus Aurelius Commodus … In 177 AD following Cassius’ rebellion, Emperor Aurelius announced Commodus as Augustus and co-emperor. Usapyon (Japanese: USA (うさ)ピョン, USApyon) is a Rank B, Ice-attribute 'Merican Yo-kai of the Shady tribe and the Uwanosora tribe starting in Yo-kai Watch 4. Commodus had an elder twin brother, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, who died in 165. Commodus subsequently accompanied his father on a lengthy trip to the Eastern provinces, during which he visited Antioch. Sources diverge on the origins of the conspiracy, with some claiming Lucilla was jealous of Commodus’ wife Crispina (incest between Commodus and Lucilla is suggested in Gladiator) while others maintain she saw the first warning signs of her brother’s mental instability. Updated October 06, 2019. Cleander was in fact the person who had murdered Saoterus. 5. Statues were erected of the emperor depicted as the mythological hero all over the city, including one made of solid gold and weighing in at nearly 1,000 pounds. , His original name was Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus. Marcus Aurelius was the first emperor since Vespasian to have a legitimate biological son and, though he himself was the fifth in the line of the so-called Five Good Emperors, each of whom had adopted his successor, it seems to have been his firm intention that Commodus should be his heir. Despite his education, he did not inherit any of his father’s work. Commodus (Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus, 31 August 161 – 31 December 192) was Roman Emperor from 180 to 192.  On 27 November 176, Marcus Aurelius granted Commodus the rank of Imperator and, in the middle of 177, the title Augustus, giving his son the same status as his own and formally sharing power. Commodus vollständiger Name wechselte mehrmals; geboren wurde er als Lucius Aurelius Commodus, seit der Erhebung zum Mitkaiser 177 hieß er Imperator Caesar Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus, bei der Übernahme der Alleinherrschaft im März 180 nahm er den Namen Antoninus und im Oktober desselben Jahres auch das Pränomen seines verstorbenen Vaters Mark Aurel an. It was presumably there that, on 15 October 172, he was given the victory title Germanicus, in the presence of the army. Commodus was born on 31 August AD 161 in Lanuvium, near Rome. Yet another attempt on his life had been foiled, but the conspirators did not lose their nerve. Commodus (31 August 161-31 December 192) was the Emperor of the Roman Empire from 180 to 192, succeeding Marcus Aurelius and preceding Pertinax.. fascinating facts from the entirety of ancient history. The megalomania of Commodus was not limited to the Colosseum. d. giving land to poor people. Whereas the reign of Marcus Aurelius had been marked by almost continuous warfare, Commodus' rule was comparatively peaceful in the military sense, but was also characterised by political strife and the increasingly arbitrary and capricious behaviour of the emperor himself. Later that year he adopted as his full style Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus Augustus Herculeus Romanus Exsuperatorius Amazonius Invictus Felix Pius (the order of some of these titles varies in the sources). Just as Marcus Aurelius was ready to revise his succession, Commodus strangled Aurelius, killing him and usurping the throne by convincing everyone that Aurelius had died of natural causes. But yeah, Commodus is the turning point for the major crisis period that almost destroyed the empire. We lived and worked in Rome for four years and spent a lot of time learning about the art, architecture, culture and history. On 12 October 166, Commodus was made Caesar together with his younger brother, Marcus Annius Verus. His twin brother, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antonius, died at age four. The second, the freeman Cleander, he allowed to be torn apart by a mob who were outraged at the freeman’s abuses. Commodus as Hercules. Papirius Dionysius was executed, too. Aurelius constantly gives his son lectures on duty and morality, he was as stern and powerful as Zeus. 4. 1 Biography 2 What … At 29, he took over more of the reins of power, though he continued to rule through a cabal consisting of Marcia, his new chamberlain Eclectus, and the new praetorian prefect Quintus Aemilius Laetus. He was portrayed by Joaquin Phoenix, who would later portray Arthur Fleck in Joker. His reign was nothing like his predecessors in bloodletting, at least in Rome. Caesar P. Helvius Pertinax Augustus) 193: Didius Julianus (Imp. His accession as emperor was the first time a son had succeeded his father since Titus succeeded Vespasian in 79. He also declared himself to be an incarnation of the god Hercules and forced the senate to recognize his divinity. He succeeded Commodus to become the first emperor during the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors . His tale wasn't believed and he was immediately put to death. However, when they were presented with the promise of 12,000 sesterces per soldier, they got on board. Roman History. c. bribing the army to support him. Pescennius Niger mopped up the deserters in Gaul in a military campaign, and a revolt in Brittany was put down by two legions brought over from Britain. Commodus was a Roman emperor during the early years of the first millennium. Commodus's death marked the end of the Nervan-Antonian dynasty , and the beginning of the end for the Western Roman Empire. He promptly renamed himself Caesar Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus Augustus, and, throughout his rule from 177 to 192 AD, he became increasingly cruel and sadistic. Commodus' reign was filled with bad decisions, causing the people of Rome to suffer. Husband of Ceionia Fabia: Levick (2014), p. 164. Caesar M. Didius Severus Julianus Augustus) 193: Septimius Severus (Imp. At some pont before the events of Ryse, he was appointed by his father as governor of Britannia.  Dio notes that the targeted senators actually found this more ridiculous than frightening, and chewed on laurel leaves to conceal their laughter. He took the throne as regent, but was killed by Maximus in the Colosseum. He also had four surviving sisters, all of them with husbands who were potential rivals. During Yo-kai Watch 3 he met and became the partner of Hailey Anne Thomas. Among those conspiring against him: his older sister Lucilla. 12 Of The Most Visited Stories On All That's Interesting In 2018, The Best ATI Galleries Of 2018: Celebs Before Fame, '60s Pics, And More, What Stephen Hawking Thinks Threatens Humankind The Most, 27 Raw Images Of When Punk Ruled New York, Join The All That's Interesting Weekly Dispatch. 8 years ago. Since there were no familial candidates, they chose a former teacher and military commander, Publius Helvius Pertinax. Cassius, however, was killed by one of his centurions before the campaign against him could begin. Now at the zenith of his power, Cleander continued to sell public offices as his private business. He was made the youngest consul in Roman history in 177 and elevated to co-augustus with his father, having been given the title imperator in 176. Moreover, as Hercules, he could claim to be the son of Jupiter, the supreme god of the Roman pantheon. Unrest around the empire increased, with large numbers of army deserters causing trouble in Gaul and Germany. Commodus (August 31, 161–December 31, 192 CE) was the emperor of Rome between 180–192 CE. Heinz, W. (1986). Contemporary Roman writer Cassius Dio describes the young heir as “rather simple-minded,” but he ruled agreeably with his father and joined Marcus Aurelius in the Marcomannic Wars against the Germanic tribes along the Danube, which the emperor had been waging for several years. According to Dio Cassius, Perennis, though ruthless and ambitious, was not personally corrupt and generally administered the state well.. After Maximus killed Commodus in the Colloseum, the emperor was chosen from the winner of a gladiator fight between two emperor wannabes. Having been accepted as Emperor by Syria, Judea and Egypt, Cassius carried on his rebellion even after it had become obvious that Marcus was still alive. Didius Julianus, the future emperor and a relative of Salvius Julianus, was dismissed from the governorship of Germania Inferior. Commode-Hercule et l'anthropologie hercaléenne,", M.P. Cassius Dio recorded one incident where, after becoming tired out, Commodus ordered a cup of chilled wine to him and “drank it at one gulp.” In an amusing anecdote, Dio continued, “At this both the populace and we senators all immediately shouted out the words so familiar at drinking-bouts, ‘Long life to you!'”. Upon his ascension, Commodus devalued the Roman currency. 1, eingeleitet und übersetzt von E. Hohl, bearbeitet und übersetzt von E. Merten (1976) 138. Reihe 4, Bd. Caesar Augustus) 27 BC-AD 14. After the death of Commodus, Pertinax became emperor. Statues of Commodus were demolished. His victories were often welcomed by his bested opponents, as bearing scars dealt by the hand of an Emperor was considered a mark of fortitude. Commodus had an elder twin brother, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, who died in 165. In the same year, Pertinax unmasked a conspiracy by two enemies of Cleander – Antistius Burrus (one of Commodus' brothers-in-law) and Arrius Antoninus. Lucilla was over ten years his senior and held the rank of Augusta as the widow of her first husband, Lucius Verus. The assassination attempt marked a turning point in Commodus’ reign, for “once [he had] tasted human blood, he became incapable of pity or remorse.” He began executing people without regard for rank, wealth, or sex. Commodus: The True Story Of The Mad Roman Emperor Immortalized In ‘Gladiator’, Commodus exposes Lucilla’s plot in this scene from, Commodus is confronted by Maximus in the arena in this scene from. Commodus rises to power as Rome's new emperor, but not everyone supports his ascent. Commodus never killed his gladiatorial adversaries, instead accepting their surrenders. Commodus was awarded the title of Augustus in 177 by Aurelius, making him co-emperor of Rome. , He was looked after by his father's physician, Galen, who treated many of Commodus' common illnesses. 16. Commodus's sister ruled briefly after Commodus was killed by Maximus. The history of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire. Unlike the preceding Emperors Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, he seems to have had little interest in the business of administration and tended throughout his reign to leave the practical running of the state to a succession of favourites, beginning with Saoterus, a freedman from Nicomedia who had become his chamberlain. He also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180. Silver Spoon in Mouth. Commodus ruled with chaos and left chaos in his wake. Salvius and Paternus were executed along with a number of other prominent consulars and senators. In December, he announced his intention to inaugurate the year 193 as both consul and gladiator on 1 January. After the assassination of Roman Emperor Commodus on December 31, 192 CE, the empire ’s throne was left vacant. But things took a wrong turn. Commodus was the first Emperor born into the ‘purple’. Updated October 06, 2019 Commodus (August 31, 161–December 31, 192 CE) was the emperor of Rome between 180–192 CE. On 15 October 184 at the Capitoline Games, a Cynic philosopher publicly denounced Perennis before Commodus. Foreign invaders rarely breached the frontiers of t… As the son of emperor Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was the first Roman emperor to have been "born in the purple," and thus dynastically selected to be his successor. Even in his lifetime, it crippled the country. The benevolent emperor Claudius who improved Rome with public works was followed by his stepson Nero, who infamously burnt it to the ground. These tendencies now increased to megalomaniacal proportions. It worked and the Nerva-Antonine dynasty which had ruled Rome for nearly a century had come to an end and the city soon descended into civil war. Commodus was born in 161, the son of the popular and highly respected emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife Faustina the Younger. In opposition to the Senate, in his pronouncements and iconography, Commodus had always stressed his unique status as a source of god-like power, liberality, and physical prowess. Essentially you became emperor in that era through being able to …  Popular rumors spread alleging he was actually the son, not of Marcus Aurelius, but of a gladiator whom his mother Faustina had taken as a lover at the coastal resort of Caieta.. As an emperor, Commodus soon became a disappointment to Marcus Aurelius. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. ), and Earnest Cary. He always won because the gladiators let him and he spared their lives. Commodus was the first (and until 337, the only) emperor "born in the purple," meaning during his father's reign.  Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants. Commodus, Emperor of Rome. A small group of conspirators, including the emperor’s chamberlain and mistress, Marcia, decided to kill him. Despite his education, he did not inherit any of his father’s work. English translation) UCLA Press, Berkeley CA (1961), 1.15.1-9, Dio (Cassius. The latter died in 169 having failed to recover fr… In November 192, Commodus held Plebeian Games, in which he shot hundreds of animals with arrows and javelins every morning, and fought as a gladiator every afternoon, winning all the fights. Servius Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus, opponents always submitted to the emperor, "De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and Their Families", Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, "Tulane University "Roman Currency of the Principate, "History Behind The Game – Ryse: Son of Rome", "Box Set Binge: Roman Empire: Reign of Blood, The Path and Deutschland 83", "Imperial Elements in the Formula of the Roman Emperors during the First Two and a Half Centuries of the Empire", Servius Cornelius Scipio Salvidienus Orfitus, Lucius Fulvius Rusticus Gaius Bruttius Praesens, Tiberius Claudius Marcus Appius Atilius Bradua Regillus Atticus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Commodus&oldid=991228974, Roman emperors murdered by the Praetorian Guard, Roman emperors to suffer posthumous denigration or damnatio memoriae, Articles with dead external links from October 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2018, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 10. The prince of Rome, Commodus is the son of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Marcus Aurelius … The emperor now changed his name to Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus. In March of 161 A.D., Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius died about 4 months shy of a 23-year reign and was succeeded by co-emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus.On August 31 st of the same year, Faustina the Younger (wife and maternal cousin of Marcus) gave birth to twins: Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus (who died about 4 years later) and Lucius Aurelius Commodus. Commodus took the loss of Saoterus badly, and Perennis now seized the chance to advance himself by implicating Paternus in a second conspiracy, one apparently led by Publius Salvius Julianus, who was the son of the jurist Salvius Julianus and was betrothed to Paternus' daughter. All the months of the year were renamed to correspond exactly with his (now twelve) names: Lucius, Aelius, Aurelius, Commodus, Augustus, Herculeus, Romanus, Exsuperatorius, Amazonius, Invictus, Felix, and Pius. At first, events after the emperor’s death went exactly according to plan. Except where otherwise noted, the notes below indicate that an individual's parentage is as shown in the above family tree. Like emperors after him, one way Commodus kept power was by a. lowering taxes on wealthy people. Commodus was the tenth of fourteen children born to Aurelius, and was ultimately the only surviving son. After this look at Commodus, check out these interesting facts about Ancient Rome. He wasn’t the first person to do this (Nero had started it), but Commodus devalued Roman coins by more than any emperor since then. During the preparations for the campaign against Cassius, Commodus assumed his toga virilis on the Danubian front on 7 July 175, thus formally entering adulthood. Pertinax. Born on August 31, 161 AD, to Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife … On November 27, 176, Aurelius promoted 15-year old Commodus to the rank of Imperator, which some say is a role similar to commander. Herodian's Roman History F.L. It seems likely that he was brought up in an atmosphere of Stoic asceticism, which he rejected entirely upon his accession to sole rule. Caesar D. Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus) 193-197: Pescennius Niger (Imp. He ruled as junior co-e… The birth of a royal son was a big deal at the time: Commodus was the first (and for a very long time, the only) Roman emperor “born in the purple,” meaning born during his dad’s reign. Under Commodus, Rome had descended “from a kingdom of gold to one of iron and rust.” Much like Nero had supposedly fiddled while Rome burned, Commodus enjoyed himself as the city decayed around him. I mean, he ruled as emperor for 12 years before being assassinated, and he co-ruled with Marcus Aurelius for three years before that. They moved westward, and pushed the Germans and Goths West/Southward into Roman lands. Methuen, 1898. He executed the two would-be assassins along with a group of prominent senators who were also allegedly involved while Lucilla was exiled to Capri before also being killed on her brother’s orders a year later. They then sent in an athlete to strangle the 31-year old emperor in his bath. Information about the Roman emperor Commodus. Lucilla was exiled to Capri and later killed. Commodus was succeeded by Pertinax, whose reign was short lived, being the first to fall victim to the Year of the Five Emperors. Dio, Cassius. Her motive is alleged to have been envy of the Empress Crispina. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army,", This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 00:00. He was succeeded by Pertinax, the first emperor in the tumultuous Year of the Five Emperors. Also, in Britain in 184, the governor Ulpius Marcellus re-advanced the Roman frontier northward to the Antonine Wall, but the legionaries revolted against his harsh discipline and acclaimed another legate, Priscus, as emperor. Commodus indeed led the troops in the wars on the Danube together with his father from AD 178, until the death of Marcus Aurelius in AD 180. Anyone who caught the emperor’s attention risked also inadvertently invoking his wrath. In the view of Dio Cassius, his accession marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of iron and rust"..  As mentioned above, he ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. The title Felix is first used by the emperor Commodus, and is used in the titles of almost all successive emperors to the fifth century. In 186 he further reduced the purity and silver weight to 74 percent and 2.22 grams respectively, being 108 to the Roman pound. Commodus was the son of the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius.He was the brother of Princess Lucilla, and uncle of Lucius.He later killed his father after he announced that General Maximus Meridius would be his successor. b. freeing slaves who would support him. Disdaining the more philosophic inclinations of his father, Commodus was extremely proud of his physical prowess. In 180 AD, Marcus Aurelius died, leaving Commodus as sole Emperor of Rome. The executions of the senators had whet his appetite for blood and he devoted himself “to combats of wild beasts and of men.” Not merely content to hunt in private, the emperor began to perform in the Colosseum itself, competing as a gladiator to the delight of the crowds and horror of the senate, as depicted in Gladiator. Commodus was one of a set of twins that Faustina gave birth to, being the one to survive. Emperor. After serving in battle on the northern frontier in 178 and 179, together with Aurelius, Commodus returned to Rome in 180 after his father’s death. Marcus Aurelius died there on 17 March 180, leaving the 18-year-old Commodus sole emperor. Commodus remained with the Danube armies for only a short time before negotiating a peace treaty with the Danubian tribes. In 187, one of the leaders of the deserters, Maternus, came from Gaul intending to assassinate Commodus at the Festival of the Great Goddess in March, but he was betrayed and executed. 0 2. The Emperor Commodus Leaving the Arena at the Head of the Gladiators (detail) by Edwin Howland Blashfield (1848–1936), Hermitage Museum and Gardens, Norfolk, Virginia. Julia Balbilla a possible lover of Sabina: A. R. Birley (1997). According to Cassius Dio, Commodus once killed 100 lions in a single day. Commodus defeats his sister's coup but withdraws from governing, allowing others to amass power while he engages in an affair and banishes his wife. At this point, the prefect Laetus formed a conspiracy with Eclectus to supplant Commodus with Pertinax, taking Marcia into their confidence. The first, Sextus Tigidius Perennis, Commodus put to death after becoming convinced he was conspiring against him. Harvard University Press, 1961, 73.10.3, Dio Cassius 73.20.3, Loeb edition translated E. Cary, Gibbon p.. 106 "disgorged at once a hundred lions; a hundred darts". After serving in battle on the northern frontier in 178 and 179, together with Aurelius, Commodus returned to Rome in 180 after his father’s death. To death after becoming convinced he was badly deluded and narcissistic, a called!, p. 7 the history of the denarius during his rule was the largest since the increased. 161 in Lanuvium, near Rome, Commodus appeared even more rarely in public, preferring to on... 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